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A thermal bridge occurs when there is a gap between materials and structural surfaces. The main thermal bridges in a building are found at the junctions of facings and floors, facings and cross walls; facings and roofs, facings and low floors. They also occur each time there is a hole (doors, windows, loggias…). These are structural thermal bridges. These thermal bridges vary in importance according to the type of wall or roof (insulated or not). In a building that is not properly insulated, thermal bridges represent low comparative losses (usually below 20%) as total losses via the walls and roof are very high (about >1W/m2K). However, when the walls and roof are very well insulated, the percentage of loss due to thermal bridges becomes high (more than 30%) but general losses are very low (less than 0.3 W/m2K). That is why in low energy consuming buildings, it is important to have very high thermal resistances for walls and roofs to have low heat losses via the junctions.
Article qui résume bien le principe de l'infiltrométrie. Cependant, pour compléter ce qui est écrit au premier paragraphe du protocole, dans le cas d'un test final, l'obturation d'un conduit de cheminée ou d'un poêle n'est pas permis sauf si on utilise le mécanisme prévu dans l'appareil (trappe de fermeture, clapet, registre)